The Inheritance for Simeon [#2]
1The second lot came out for Simeon, for the tribe of the people of Simeon, according to their clans,(A) and their inheritance was in the midst of the inheritance of the people of Judah. 2(B) And they had for their inheritance Beersheba, Sheba, Moladah, 3Hazar-shual, Balah, Ezem, 4Eltolad, Bethul, Hormah, 5Ziklag, Beth-marcaboth, Hazar-susah, 6Beth-lebaoth, and Sharuhen—thirteen cities with their villages; 7Ain, Rimmon, Ether, and Ashan—four cities with their villages, 8together with all the villages around these cities as far as Baalath-beer, Ramah of the Negeb. This was the inheritance of the tribe of the people of Simeon according to their clans.
What is particular noteworthy about Simeon is that it, alongside Levi, are the only two tribes which do not have their ‘own land’. Indeed, the nature of Simeon’s ownership is different from Levi; the latter are perpetually part of the priesthood serving the LORD, and the former owning a small piece of land within the tents of Judah. These two tribes are presently receiving their just deserts, in response to the massacre caused by these two brothers on the Shechemites in Genesis 34. Genesis 49 accordingly prophesies what is to happen to these two tribes as fulfilled here in Joshua 19.
9(C) The inheritance of the people of Simeon formed part of the territory of the people of Judah. Because the portion of the people of Judah was too large for them, the people of Simeon obtained an inheritance in the midst of their inheritance.
As v.9 indicates and as aforementioned in the commentary on the borders of Judah, Simeon’s share in the land of Judah is a result of Judah having “too large” a portion of land for their own tribe. Not only this, but their inheritance within Judah seems to be quite significant, ranging from the symbolic Beersheba (“well of (sevenfold) oath”), the house of chariots (Beth-marcaboth) and village of horses (Hazar-susah); house of lionesses (Bethlebaoth) and city of refuge (Sharuhen); alongside fountain spring, pomegranate and abundance in the city names of v.7.
It is not all rosy, given that there is also the Baalath-beer (“well of mistresses”); and if we were to look at the great possessions which Simeon now owns within the tents of Judah, one wonders whether this will become a bitter-sweet blessing, for Simeon to have the well of oath, the house of chariots, horses and lionesses, as well as including a city of refuge. It is a land of many fruits and resources; however, like Levi, God has shined his mercy to Simeon as well. Levi is now taken into God’s presence with more intimacy by working in the courts of the tabernacle; so also the Gibeonites who had deceived the Israelites are now forevermore the workers of the tabernacle altar; and here we see Simeon being made a brother of Judah, and Judah acting as the older brother guiding the tribe of Simeon to righteous warfare as opposed to what their forefather Simeon has done with the Shechemites (c.f. Judges 1:3; 1:17).
It is here that we learn much about familial theology; the prodigal son as commonly preached looks at the younger wayward son as representative of who we are, as if celebrating him alone. However, the parable should always have functioned as a story of rebuke juxtaposed to restoration, rather than simply one of redemption as we spend our focus too much on the younger son when the older son’s actions should be equally if not more scrutinized.
“Gospel is not morality or immorality; it’s not somewhere in the middle… the gospel says the humble are in and the proud are not; the people who know they’re not good are in; it’s the people who think they are are out. It’s not halfway between the two… it’s off the spectrum of human opinion altogether. It’s something completely different… the people who heard this parable would have been confused… Jesus says that both of the ordinary human categories… are wrong…
If you become a Christian out of an elder-brother-ishness… then when you start to slide-back, you hardly even know you are sliding back. Some of our churches are so filled with elder brother ishness and think it is normal… the elder brother lostness, deadness, which clings to so many of us…” – Tim Keller on the Prodigal Sons
Tim Keller goes on to list five of the characteristics of ‘elder brother-ishness’ in the churches today, all stemming from a lack of intimacy and assurance of the Father’s love; and here it is fitting to remind ourselves of how Simeon came to bear his name – the name literally means hearing, but it is more appropriate to describe it as “God has heard”. The context is where Leah has heard that Rachel is more loved by Jacob, and yet God has heard Leah’s cry and pain and has continued to love Leah as equally as Rachel and Jacob. Simeon is thus borne out of a lack of love by his human counterparts, but loved by God. Here, we have Judah and Simeon, Judah also from Leah; however, Judah is now the bigger nation with more power. In many ways, he is like the elder nation, yet Judah is taking Simeon under his wings. Unlike the elder brother-ishness as described by Keller, Judah is playing the role of Christ, our true elder brother (spiritually, because Judah is actually Simeon’s younger brother). It is by our true elder brother than we appropriate the firstfruit because he is the firstfruit. He is the first to be resurrected; he is the first to have a renewed body; he is the first to ascend – and we will follow suit as we are his younger co-heirs. Simeon equally, being under the shelter of Judah, receives the same blessings and like Levi and Gibeon we see a nation redeemed as God does not condemn but love them through Christ.
The Inheritance for Zebulun [#3]
10The third lot came up for the people of Zebulun, according to their clans. And the territory of their inheritance reached as far as Sarid.
|West||11Then their boundary goes up(D) westward and on to Mareal and touches Dabbesheth, then the brook that is east of(E) Jokneam.|
|South and East||12From Sarid it goes in the other direction eastward toward the sunrise to the boundary of Chisloth-tabor. From there it goes to Daberath, then up to Japhia. 13From there it passes along on the east toward the sunrise to Gath-hepher, to Eth-kazin, and going on to Rimmon it bends toward Neah,|
|North||14then on the north the boundary turns about to Hannathon, and it ends at the Valley of Iphtahel; 15and Kattath, Nahalal,(F) Shimron, Idalah, and Bethlehem—twelve cities with their villages. 16This is the inheritance of the people of Zebulun, according to their clans—these cities with their villages.|
Genesis 49:13 states that Zebulun shall be a haven for ships being near the coastline of Galilee and the Great Sea on the west. Matthew Henry notes how Christ had spent much time in this region, so much as to be entitled Jesus of Nazareth, and whereupon on Mt. Tabor he was transfigured. However, what is even more important is two particular occurrences: the continual reference to “eastward toward the sunrise” in v.12-13; and secondly the reference to Bethlehem of Zebulun (as opposed to the Bethlehem of Judah where Christ was born).
If this is the area where Christ performed much of his miracles and witnesses, one must wonder: why Zebulun of all tribal regions? There is in fact much implication in the Hebrew imagery here; Zebulun is next to the sea of Galilee where there were many fishermen who would understand the theology behind fish in sea water as parallel to men to be saved from the waters of judgment as first shown during day 2 of creation and then during the Noahic flood. Secondly, the particular Hebrew phrasing of ‘east towards the sunrise’ among all the other possible Hebrew phrases. The sunrise is commonly associated to the dawn of the new day, of new hope (Psalm 19:4 Psalm 84:11; Malachi 4:2; Luke 1:78) – and so far for the specific descriptions of the borders of the tribes, this phrase has not been used besides that of Zebulun. It is thus no coincidence that the LORD Jesus should use Zebulun as a working ground for his miracles and witnessing as Messiah, in a land near the sea; in a land where he was transfigured – all of these implied by the new rising hope of the coming Messiah in the second Bethlehem. Where he is born from the House of Bread, he shall go to a symbolic second house of bread to perform his works because He is the true living Bread and He is the true living Clean Water.
The Inheritance for Issachar [#4]
17The fourth lot came out for Issachar, for the people of Issachar, according to their clans. 18Their territory included Jezreel, Chesulloth,(G) Shunem, 19Hapharaim, Shion, Anaharath, 20Rabbith, Kishion, Ebez, 21Remeth, En-gannim, En-haddah, Beth-pazzez.
22The boundary also touches Tabor, Shahazumah, and Beth-shemesh, and its boundary ends at the Jordan—sixteen cities with their villages. 23This is the inheritance of the tribe of the people of Issachar, according to their clans—the cities with their villages.
The narrative is short for the tribe of Issachar; yet it is a place of many significances, particularly the place where King Josiah is slain. Dev Menon in his commentary on Revelation in particular looks at how this relates to Revelation 15-16 in the prophecy concerning “Armageddon”:
“Revelation 16:15-16 “Behold, I am coming like a thief! Blessed is the one who stays awake, keeping his garments on, that he may not go about naked and be seen exposed!” And they assembled them at the place that in Hebrew is called Armageddon.
The Lord is coming soon, and those who are undressed, unprepared will not be ready. The Thief that comes in the night will expose all that is false, the trap shall be shut. Let us remember the Passover, and carry out the festival of Unleavened Bread – to remove the yeast of this world from our lives, until we can eat risen bread in luxury in the Promised Land:
Jesus will return like a thief. He makes no appointment, He comes unexpectedly and on that day He will bring these plagues to an end. He will judge His enemies and save His people. Stay awake, stay dressed for that day. It’s a little like the LORD’s command to the Israelites about Passover. Eat it with your cloak tucked into your belt, your sandals on your feet and your staff in your hand. Be ready because the LORD will lead you out soon. We belong to the next age – we belong to the new heavens and the new earth, don’t get caught up in this passing age (quoted from Glen Scrivener’s sermon on Revelation 15-16)
The victory is assured – the armies of the world assemble at the Mount of Megiddo, the very place where Josiah (God supports) was pierced. That is the place of their destruction. The place of the cross.”
This “Megiddo” is located in the tribe of Issachar and it sheds light on the prophecy in Genesis 49:14 which seems mysterious – a “strong donkey in the midst of the sheepfold”. However, if we were to look at this prophecy eschatologically as referred to in Revelation, then we see the connection between King Josiah’s piercing and the place of the destruction of the enemy; it is there that Christ returns from the midst of the sheepfold as the true King; the humble Lamb who was always and continues to be the powerful Commander of the LORD’s armies, straddling the donkey victoriously into victory towards New Jerusalem.
The Inheritance for Asher [#5]
24The fifth lot came out for the tribe of the people of Asher according to their clans. 25Their territory included Helkath, Hali, Beten, Achshaph, 26Allammelech, Amad, and Mishal.
|South and West||On the west it touches(H) Carmel and Shihor-libnath, 27then it turns eastward, it goes to Beth-dagon, and touches Zebulun and the Valley of Iphtahel northward to Beth-emek and Neiel.|
|East, North and West||Then it continues in the north to(I) Cabul, 28Ebron, Rehob, Hammon, Kanah, as far as(J) Sidon the Great. 29Then the boundary turns to Ramah, reaching to the fortified city of Tyre. Then the boundary turns to Hosah, and it ends at the sea; Mahalab,[a] Achzib, 30Ummah, Aphek and Rehob—twenty-two cities with their villages. 31This is the inheritance of the tribe of the people of Asher according to their clans—these cities with their villages.|
The ‘fortified city of Tyre’ has generated quite a response amongst commentators, some saying that it is not the same Tyre as mentioned in the prophetic books. Adam Clarke in particular investigates the differences in the Vulgate and LXX compared to the actual Hebrew:
“I suspect this to be an improper translation. Perhaps the words of the original should be retained: And the coast turneth to Ramah and to the city, מבצר צר mibtsar tsor. Our translators have here left the Hebrew, and followed the Septuagint and Vulgate, a fault of which they are sometimes guilty. The former render the place ἑως πολεως οχυρωματος των Τυριων, unto the fortified city of the Tyrians. The Vulgate is nearly the same: ad civitatem munitissimam Tyrum, to the well-fortified city Tyre; but this must be incorrect for the famous city of Tyre was not known till about A.M. 2760, about two hundred years after the days of Joshua. Homer, who frequently mentions Sidon and the Sidonians, never mentions Tyre; a proof that this afterwards very eminent city was not then known. Homer is allowed by some to have flourished in the time of Joshua, though others make him contemporary with the Israelitish judges. The word צר Tsor or Tsar, which we translate or change into Tyre, signifies a rock or strong place; and as there were many rocks in the land of Judea, that with a little art were formed into strong places of defense, hence several places might have the name of Tsar or Tyre. The ancient and celebrated Tyre, so much spoken of both in sacred and profane history, was a rock or small island in the sea, about six or seven hundred paces from the main land. In order to reduce this city, Alexander the Great was obliged to fill up the channel between it and the main land, and after all took it with much difficulty. It is generally supposed that a town on the main land, opposite to this fortified rock, went by the same name; one being called old Tyre, the other, new Tyre: it was out of the ruins of the old Tyre, or that which was situated on the main land, that Alexander is said to have filled up the channel between it and the new city. Of this city Isaiah, Isaiah 23:1-18, and Ezekiel, Ezekiel 27:1-28:26, have given a very grand description, and also predicted its irreparable ruin which prophecies have been most literally fulfilled.”
Genesis 49:20 has indicated that out of Asher shall come royal delicacies; however, the only thing “royal” about Asher is this notable city of Tyre which Adam Clarke, amongst other theologians, believes to be different from the later city of Tyre condemned by God in both Isaiah and Ezekiel. The name “Asher” also indicates “happiness” and “blessing”, once more alluding to the fact that from Asher shall come benefits to the other nations and other tribes. The text here by itself does not seem to yield enough information, perhaps save the Hebrew, which may have some hidden truths concerning the tribe.
The Inheritance for Naphtali [#6]
32The sixth lot came out for the people of Naphtali, for the people of Naphtali, according to their clans.
We can see that Naphtali is the furthest north of all the tribes; it is within this lot that Christ did so many of his mighty works in and around Galilee (Matthew 5:1), his sermon on the mount. As I have done with the other tribes thus far, let us look at what some commentators say concerning the fulfillment of prophecy in Genesis 49:
“Concerning Naphtali (Gen_49:21), a tribe that carries struggles in its name; it signifies wrestling, and the blessing entailed upon it signifies prevailing; it is a hind let loose. Though we find not this prediction so fully answered in the event as some of the rest, yet, no doubt, it proved true that those of this tribe were, 1. As the loving hind (for that is her epithet, Pro_5:19), friendly and obliging to one another and to other tribes; their converse remarkably kind and endearing. 2. As the loosened hind, zealous for their liberty. 3. As the swift hind (Psa_18:33), quick in despatch of business; and perhaps, 4. As the trembling, timorous in times of public danger. It is rare that those that are most amiable to their friends are most formidable to their enemies. 5. That they should be affable and courteous, their language refined, and they complaisant, giving goodly words. Note, Among God’s Israel there is to be found a great variety of dispositions, contrary to each other, yet all contributing to the beauty and strength of the body, Judah like a lion, Issachar like an ass, Dan like a serpent, Naphtali like a hind. Let not those of different tempers and gifts censure one another, nor envy one another, any more than those of different statures and complexions.” – Matthew Henry
33And their boundary ran from Heleph, from(K) the oak in Zaanannim, and Adami-nekeb, and Jabneel, as far as Lakkum, and it ended at the Jordan. 34Then the boundary turns(L) westward to Aznoth-tabor and goes from there to Hukkok, touching Zebulun at the south and Asher on the west and Judah on the east at the Jordan. 35The fortified cities are Ziddim, Zer, Hammath, Rakkath,(M) Chinnereth, 36Adamah, Ramah,(N) Hazor, 37Kedesh, Edrei, En-hazor, 38Yiron, Migdal-el, Horem, Beth-anath, and Beth-shemesh—nineteen cities with their villages. 39This is the inheritance of the tribe of the people of Naphtali according to their clans—the cities with their villages.
If we look at the borders, we can quickly come to realize that Naphtali, being at the furthest north is (like Judah in the extreme south) a beacon of light for the Gentiles. In many ways, we track Christ’s travels from the south to the north starting from the listing of the allotments from Judah up to Naphtali; from the Bethlehem of Judah, to the second Bethlehem of Zebulun, to the northern borders of Naphtali. We can see how after the naming of the tribes on the East of the Jordan, and the three important tribes on the West of the Jordan (Judah, and the sons of Joseph) we see a movement from the south to the north, tracing the steps of where Christ would be involved in his ministries, tracing his involvement in the tribal lands on the west of the Jordan, and eventually returning south to Jerusalem in the end of his days on earth. It is here in the lot of this tribe that he preaches the Sermon on the Mount, the border where there are plenty of both Jews and Gentiles abound. We therefore come to realize, ever so progressively, that Christ does not aimlessly travel around the tribes of Israel, but he intentionally does so to give the full weight and meaning behind the context and names of the cities given to these tribes.
The Inheritance for Dan [#7]
40The seventh lot came out for the tribe of the people of Dan, according to their clans. 41And the territory of its inheritance included Zorah, Eshtaol, Ir-shemesh, 42(O) Shaalabbin, Aijalon, Ithlah, 43Elon, Timnah, Ekron, 44Eltekeh, Gibbethon, Baalath, 45Jehud, Bene-berak, Gath-rimmon, 46and Me-jarkon and Rakkon with the territory over against(P) Joppa. 47When(Q) the territory of the people of Dan was lost to them, the people of Dan went up and fought against Leshem, and after capturing it and striking it with the sword they took possession of it and settled in it, calling Leshem, Dan, after the name of Dan their ancestor. 48This is the inheritance of the tribe of the people of Dan, according to their clans—these cities with their villages.
We finally come to the last tribe to be allotted – Dan. From v.47 we see that the people of Dan were willing to fight for their land, renaming “Leshem” (“precious stone”) as Dan. We also mustn’t forget that Dan was excluded from New Jerusalem in Revelation 7:5-8. In Genesis 49 we also learn that Dan shall be like a servant, and shall judge his people. However, if we were to take Dan’s predicament into context and given the negative imagery of the serpent throughout Scripture as an animal of God’s creation to be used (c.f. Moses’ staff turning into a serpent) and not to be obeyed (the curse on the serpent allegorical to the curse on Satan in Genesis 3) then this ‘judging’ by Dan is anything but glorious. The Hebrew may provide some insight here, given the name “Dan” (which means “judge”) and the prophecy in Genesis 49:16 concerning Dan’s judging of the people (from the Hebrew dun דּוּן, meaning “to strive or contend”). Now, if anything this judgment seems to be coming from the wrong source; the serpent had judged mankind though being one of God’s (now fallen) angels (c.f. Ezekiel 28). Dan, too, is one of the tribes of Israel, and yet his attempt to judge Israel from his perspective is misplaced, much like Judas’ attempt to judge Jesus by seeing him not as Son of Man or Son of the Father.
Thus, how do we reconcile Dan’s warlike behaviour, the prophecy concerning the tribe and her eventual excluding from the tribes listed in the book of Revelation? Adam Clarke sees the allotment to Dan as fitting to the tribe’s power, that it is “Providence [which] ordered this numerous and powerful tribe into a post of danger, as best able to deal with those vexatious neighbours the Philistines, and so it was found in Samson”. Indeed, Dan bore one of the most celebrated judges, Samson, but even he did not escape the sin of pride so characteristic of the fallen angel behind the serpent.
The Inheritance for Joshua [#8]
49When they had finished distributing the several territories of the land as inheritances, the people of Israel gave an inheritance among them to Joshua the son of Nun. 50By command of the LORD they gave him the city that he asked,(R) Timnath-serah in the hill country of Ephraim. And he rebuilt the city and settled in it.
So the eighth allotment is given to Joshua – “Timnath-serah” which means “portion of the sun”. Whatever pagan religion these natives of Timnath-serah experienced, indicated by the name of the city that they were perhaps sun-worshippers, is immediately redeemed by Yeshua. What does he do that is so different from that of the other tribes? He rebuilt the city and settled in it.
Why rebuild the city? Because that is the essence of redemptive theology through Christ; Christ took on flesh not to do away with it, but to save it:
“It is, then, proper for us to begin the treatment of this subject by speaking of the creation of the universe, and of God its Artificer, that so it may be duly perceived that the renewal of creation has been the work of the self-same Word that made it at the beginning. For it will appear not inconsonant for the Father to have wrought its salvation in Him by Whose means He made it…What then was God to do? or what was to be done save the renewing of that which was in God’s image, so that by it men might once more be able to know Him? But how could this have come to pass save by the presence of the very Image of God, our Lord Jesus Christ? For by men’s means it was impossible, since they are but made after an image; nor by angels either, for not even they are (God’s) images. Whence the Word of God came in His own person, that, as He was the Image of the Father, He might be able to create afresh the man after the image… But, again, it could not else have taken place had not death and corruption been done away… Whence He took, in natural fitness, a mortal body, that while death might in it be once for all done away, men made after His Image might once more be renewed. None other then was sufficient for this need, save the Image of the Father… For as, when the likeness painted on a panel has been effaced by stains from without, he whose likeness it is must needs come once more to enable the portrait to be renewed on the same wood: for, for the sake of his picture, even the mere wood on which it is painted is not thrown away, but the outline is renewed upon it… For by His becoming Man, the Saviour was to accomplish both works of love; first, in putting away death from us and renewing us again; secondly, being unseen and invisible, in manifesting and making Himself known by His works to be the Word of the Father, and the Ruler and King of the universe.” – Athanasius in “The Incarnation of the Word”
His choice of Ephraim also evokes an understanding of the prophecy of Genesis 49 where Ephraim was chosen over Manasseh, not to mention that there is no other person who is singled out and honoured enough to be given land save Joshua alone (and Caleb under his request).
51(S) These are the inheritances that Eleazar the priest and Joshua the son of Nun and the heads of the fathers’ houses of the tribes of the people of Israel distributed by lot(T) at Shiloh before the LORD, at the entrance of the tent of meeting. So they finished dividing the land.
And so, just as previous chapter began with a rebuke on the remaining seven tribes before the temple of the LORD at Shiloh, so the allotment ends with the focus once more on this symbolic name bearing the truth of Christ alongside the symbolic tabernacle which is a pattern made according to God’s temple in heaven.
The Cities of Refuge
1Then the LORD said to Joshua, 2“Say to the people of Israel,(U) ‘Appoint the cities of refuge, of which I spoke to you through Moses, 3that the manslayer who strikes any person without intent or unknowingly may flee there. They shall be for you a refuge from the avenger of blood. 4He shall flee to one of these cities and shall stand(V) at the entrance of the gate of the city and explain his case to the elders of that city. Then they shall take him into the city and give him a place, and he shall remain with them. 5And if the avenger of blood pursues him, they shall not give up the manslayer into his hand, because he struck his neighbor unknowingly, and did not hate him in the past. 6And he shall remain in that city(W) until he has stood before the congregation for judgment, until the death of him who is high priest at the time. Then the manslayer may return to his own town and his own home, to the town from which he fled.'”
After the allotment we come to the re-statement of the cities of refuge littered throughout the books of Moses (c.f. Exodus 21; especially Numbers 35). It is intimated through the law that the purpose of the cities of refuge is to become types of Christ as He is our true refuge (Hebrews 6:18), both sanctifying and protecting the man who runs to Him. The geography may show that these cities are equally spaced throughout Israel implying the ease in finding shelter from the avenger, but even more importantly is the significance of the name of the cities chosen. Adam Clarke implies that if one was to turn to Origen’s allegorical hermeneutics, then it would be quite simple for him to expose the whole gospel from just the names themselves. Here is my tabular form inspired from his understanding of the Hebrew and significance of each name:
|City of Refuge||Significance||Location|
|Kedesh||קדש Kedesh, from kadash, to separate or set apart, because it implies the consecration of a person or thing to the worship or service of God alone; hence to make or be holy.||Galilee, in the hill country of Naphtali|
|Shechem||שכם Shechem, from shacham, to be ready, forward, and diligent; hence Shechem, the shoulder, because of its readiness to bear burdens, prop up, sustain, etc.||Hill country of Ephraim|
|Kiriath-arba (Hebron)||חברון chebron; Hebron, from חבר chabar, to associate, join, conjoin, unite as friends; and hence chebron, fellowship, friendly association.||Hill country of Judah|
|Bezer||בצר Bezer, from batsar, to restrain, enclose, shut up, or encompass with a wall; and hence the goods or treasure thus secured, and hence a fortified place, a fortress.||Beyond the Jordan east of Jericho, in the wilderness on the tableland from the tribe of Reuben|
|Ramoth||ראמות Ramoth, from ראם raam, to be raised, made high or exalted.||Gilead, from the tribe of Gad|
|Golan||גולן Golan, from גלה galah, to remove, transmigrate, or pass away; hence Golan, a transmigration or passage. Some derive it from גל gal, to rejoice, hence Golan, rejoicing or exultation.||Bashan from the tribe of Manasseh|
It is thus outlined here that the Son Jesus Christ shall be glorified and made holy (Kedesh) as he fulfils his vocation as bearing the burden (Shechem) of the government and all the nations of the world, akin to the Levitical clothing bearing the names of the 12 tribes of Israel on his shoulder and breast, so to create fellowship between Trinity and man (Hebron) as indicated by the patriarchal altar at Hebron, a fellowship which can only be entered by God’s sons and no enemies (Bezer) while Christ is exalted (Ramoth) in his ascension to the right hand of the Father to remove our sins (Golan) and extend rejoicing to the ends of the earth.
Is this gospel truth prevented from Gentiles? By no means – the end of this chapter displays that this is for all the children of Israel, “and for the stranger” – such is the gospel of the Old Testament that it is not only for the Israelites, for they are a light to all the Gentile nations! What wonder it is to see God displaying his wondrous truth of Christ on the cross through the allotments, through Yeshua the type of the true Yeshua, and through the refuge cities appropriately named to intimate the most intimate truth of God’s love for us before we even knew or loved Him.